Big Black River Bridge
Civil War Mississippi


American Civil War
May 17, 1863

Reeling from their defeat at Champion Hill, the Confederates reached Big Black River Bridge, the night of May 16-17. Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton ordered Brigadier General John S. Bowen, with three brigades, to man the fortifications on the east bank of the river and impede any Union pursuit.

Three divisions of Major General John A. McClernand's XIII Army Corps moved out from Edwards Station on the morning of the 17th. The corps encountered the Confederates behind breastworks and took cover as enemy artillery began firing. Union Brigadier General Michael K. Lawler formed his 2nd Brigade, Carr's Division, which surged out of a meander scar, across the front of the Confederate forces, and into the enemy's breastworks, held by Vaughn's East Tennessee Brigade.

Confused and panicked, the Rebels began to withdraw across the Big Black on two bridges: the railroad bridge and the steamboat dock moored athwart the river. As soon as they had crossed, the Confederates set fire to the bridges, preventing close Union pursuit. The fleeing Confederates who arrived in Vicksburg later that day were disorganized.

The Union forces captured approximately 1,800 troops at Big Black, a loss that the Confederates could ill-afford. This battle sealed Vicksburg's fate: the Confederate force was bottled up at Vicksburg.

Result(s): Union victory

Location: Hinds County and Warren County

Campaign: Grant's Operations against Vicksburg (1863) next battle in campaign previous battle in campaign

Date(s): May 17, 1863

Principal Commanders: Major General John A. McClernand [US]; Brigadier General John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: XIII Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee [US]; Bridgehead Defense Force (three brigades) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 2,273 total (US 273; CS 2,000)


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Sources:
U.S. National Park Service
U.S. Library of Congress.

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