Early August, General Lee determined that Union General McClellan's army was being withdrawn from the Peninsula to reinforce John Pope.
He sent CSA General Longstreet from Richmond to join General Stonewall Jackson's wing of the army near Gordonsville and arrived to take command himself on August 15.
August 20-21, Pope withdrew to the line of the Rappahannock River.
On August 23, General JEB Stuart's cavalry made a daring raid on Pope's headquarters at Catlett Station, showing that the Union right flank was vulnerable to a turning movement.
Over the next several days, August 22-25, the two armies fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River, including Waterloo Bridge, Lee Springs, Freeman's Ford, and Sulphur Springs, resulting in a few hundred casualties.
Together, these skirmishes primed Pope's army along the river, while Jackson's wing marched via Thoroughfare Gap to capture Bristoe Station and destroy Federal supplies at Manassas Junction, far in the rear of Pope's army.
Other Names: Waterloo Bridge, White Sulphur Springs, Lee Springs, Freeman's Ford
Location: Culpeper County and Fauquier County
Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862) next battle in campaign previous battle in campaign
Date(s): August 22-25, 1862
Principal Commanders: Major General John Pope [US]; Major General Thomas "Stonewall" J. Jackson [CS]
Forces Engaged: Brigades
Estimated Casualties: 225 total