Red Clay to Richmond: Trail of the 35th Georgia Infantry Regiment, C.S.A.
The story of the 35th Georgia Infantry Regiment. Using many previously unpublished primary accounts. Follow these men as they move from their homesteads to the Confederate capital at Richmond. Details the daily life of the average Confederate soldier.It reveals the true American spirit of courage exhibited through deprivation and hardship
Georgia Civil War Map of Battles
State Flag History
Civil War Milledgeville: Tales from the Confederate Capital of Georgia
In the town of Milledgeville, Georgia--the state capital during the Civil War the actions of local soldiers and citizens alike tell a story that is unique to that locale.
The division between combatant and civilian at the local level is not always clear. The often forgotten events and people that have shaped our larger understanding of the Civil War, from a womens riot to a confederate cavalry rescue.
The Atlanta Campaign of 1864
The operations of the Union and Confederate armies from the perspective of the soldiers and the top generals. He offers new accounts and analyses of the major events of the campaign, and, in the process, corrects many long-standing myths, misconceptions, and mistakes. He challenges the standard view of Sherman's performance.
The rise of Yankee Samuel Griswold from tineware peddler to industrial magnate. Details the history of Griswoldville from its creation to its destruction. Special attention is paid to the two military operations most closely identified with the little town: the Stoneman Raid and the stand of "Young Boys and Old Men"
Fields of Gray, Battle of Griswoldville, November 22, 1864
The heroic but vain fight of the Georgia troops made up of militia, state line, Athens and Augusta work battalions in their stand against Sherman's hardened veterans on their March to the Sea. In defense of family and homes the 4,000-5,000 Georgia troops under General Phillips attacked the Union right wing at Griswoldville
Southern Storm: Sherman's March to the Sea
The destruction spanned more than sixty miles in width and virtually cut the South in two, disabling the flow of supplies to the Confederate army. He led more than 60,000 Union troops to blaze a path from Atlanta to Savannah, ordering his men to burn crops, kill livestock, and decimate everything that fed the Rebel war machine
This Terrible Sound
The Battle of Chickamauga
Study of the great bloody battle of Chickamauga that was the last great offensive, although costsly, victory by the Confederates. This is a detailed account of the movements of regiments, brigades, divisions.
The White Tecumseh: A Biography of General William T. Sherman
Utilizing regimental histories, historian Hirshon offers a sympathetic yet excellent biography of one of the more noted Civil War generals, best remembered for burning Atlanta, cutting a swath of destruction across Georgia, then creating total destruction in South Carolina, including the burning of Columbia. Hirshon gives us an insight into how Sherman's own troops felt about him and his relationships with fellow generals, especially Grant. The author not only describes Sherman's role in the war but also details his early life and family problems. The latter part of the book deals with his life after the war, especially with the Indians in the West as well as his relationships with Presidents Johnson and Grant.
Sherman Invades Georgia: Planning the North Georgia Campaign Using a Modern Perspective
Sherman Invades Georgia takes advantage of modern planning techniques to fully examine what went into the Georgia campaign. Unlike other studies, though, this one puts the reader squarely into the mind of General Sherman on the eve of his most famous military undertaking—limiting the information to that possessed by Sherman at the time, as documented in his correspondence during the campaign and not in his after-the-fact reports and autobiography.
The Battle of Peachtree Creek:
An Audio Driving Tour
This is a cd and a map packaged like an audiobook. Tour beautiful Atlanta neighborhoods while listening to audio describe the battle of Peachtree Creek. The route winds seven miles through the hills south of Buckhead before ending in Tanyard Creek Park on Collier Road.
The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman's Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns
This book contains an examination of the army that General William Tecumseh Sherman led through Georgia and the Carolinas, in late 1864 and early 1865. Instead of being just another narrative of the March to the Sea and Carolina campaigns, however, Glatthaar's book is a look at the individuals that composed the army. In it, he examines the social and ideological backgrounds of the men in Sherman's army, and evaluates how they felt about various factors of the war--slavery, the union, and, most significantly, the campaign in which they were participating. The result is a fascinating look at Sherman's campaigns through the eyes of the everyday soldier. Amazon Reviewer
Guide to the Atlanta Campaign: Rocky Face Ridge to Kennesaw Mountain
Following the capture of Chattanooga, the Union initiated battles and operations that took it from the Tennessee border to the outskirts of Atlanta. Bloody confrontations at places such as Resaca and New Hope Church. Grant had ordered Sherman to penetrate the enemy's interior and inflict "all the damage you can against their War resources,"
A large Union army led by Sherman leaves Chattanooga and northern Georgia camps and marches south to Atlanta and ultimately arrives at the coastal city of Savannah, laying waste to the territory through which it passes
The Battle of Resaca:
Atlanta Campaign, 1864
Ideal book for a Civil War buff. Take it with you if you visit the site. Written accounts from the soldiers that stormed across the hills put you in the moment. Several good maps and even pictures taken a few days after the battle help take you out of your living room and into the past
Georgia State Flag History
Georgia States Rights Flag
This Georgia states rights banner probably dates from late 1860 or early 1861. It shows a coiled rattlesnake on a large stone boulder which bears the phrase "STATE RIGHTS." Above the snake is a ribbon which has the phrase, "DON'T TREAD ON ME." On the reverse side of the flag is a painting of the Georgia coat of arms.
Two days after Lincoln's election, a crowd gathered on one of Savannah's public squares in a demonstration urging Georgia's secession from the Union. As documented in a lithograph of the time entitled, "The first Flag of Independence raised in the South, by the Citizens of Savannah, Ga. November 8th 1860" [detail shown above], a flag is shown hanging from the monument in the square. The flag contains a coiled snake on white background with the inscription, "Our Motto, Southern States, Equality of the States, Don't Tread on Me."
This would qualify as Georgia's earliest secession flag--and probably one of the earliest in the South. At least one secession flag of similar design survives in the collection of Georgia's Secretary of State [see above].
History does not record who made the first Georgia state flag, when it was made, what it looked like, or who authorized its creation. Likely, the banner originated in one of the numerous militia units that existed in antebellum Georgia.
In 1861, a new provision was added to Georgia's code requiring the governor to supply regimental flags to Georgia militia units assigned to fight outside the state. These flags were to depict the "arms of the State" and the name of the regiment. In heraldry, "arms" refers to a coat of arms, which is the prominent design -- usually shown on a shield -- located at the center of an armorial bearing or seal. Arms usually appear on seals, but they are not synonymous with seals.The code gave no indication as to the color to be used on the arms or the flag's background, though militia flags probably would have been on a field of blue.
Shortly after the Civil War, an artist reconstructed a scene of Georgia troops in action near Bull Run in July 1861. This engraving (left center) shows one of the soldiers is holding either a regimental or unofficial state flag with the Georgia coat of arms on a solid field.
With the exception of events surrounding Georgia's secession in January 1861, there is no evidence that state flags in Georgia were political symbols flown over the state capitol, courthouses, or other government buildings. No engravings or photos of the state capitol buildings in Milledgeville and Atlanta ever show a state flag. Usually, no flag is visible--but if a flag is shown, it is always the U.S. flag.
Instead of a governmental symbol, state flags in Georgia well into the 20th century were primarily intended for use by state militia units. When the General Assembly finally adopted an official state flag in 1879, the language was inserted into the state code title dealing with the state militia. Only when a new state flag was adopted in 1956 was the flag provision removed from its state militia context.
Thus, because of the pre-1879 state flag's origin as a military flag, it probably most often appeared on a blue field. However, some versions of the flag used a red background. The Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond, Virginia, has one of the few surviving Georgia state flags from the Civil War era--a large 10- by 14-foot flag captured by Sherman's forces when Savannah fell in late 1864. This banner (left bottom) consists of the columned archway from the Georgia coat of arms in white cotton on a field of red wool without any words or the customary soldier. Museum records identify this as a "storm flag."
In addition to flags with fields of blue and red, there are some accounts of the Georgia coat of arms being sewn onto a field of white. Also characteristic of the fact that there were no official specifications, coats of arms probably were in a variety of colors--including multiple colors, gold, and white.
Based on the best available evidence, the above flag is a reconstruction of the pre-1879 unofficial Georgia state flag as it would have appeared using a color version of the coat of arms from the 1799 state seal. However, multi-color coats of arms would have been more difficult and expensive to make, and it is likely that many of the actual flags used a single color.
In 1879, state senator Herman H. Perry introduced legislation giving Georgia its first official state flag. Colonel Perry was a Confederate veteran, a fact that probably influenced his proposal to take the Stars and Bars, remove the stars, extend the blue canton to the bottom of the flag, and narrow its width slightly. The legislation provided no height vs. length dimensions, but it did stipulate the width of the blue band was to be one-third the length of the entire flag. Also, the red of the flag was specified to be scarlet.
Why had Georgia finally adopted an official state flag? On the previous day, the 1879 General Assembly had passed a law recodifying state law regulating volunteer troops. Included in the revision was a provision that: "Every battalion of volunteers shall carry the flag of the State, when one is adopted by Act of the General Assembly, as its battalion colors."
Governor Colquitt approved Georgia's first official state flag on October 17, 1879.
Georgia State Flag
(c. 1902 - c. 1920s)
In 1902, Georgia's General Assembly enacted legislation stipulating that Georgia's coat of arms (i.e., the interior section of the state seal that shows the arch) be incorporated on the vertical blue band of the state flag. However, in their 1904 volume, The Story of Georgia , Katharine Massey and Laura Wood include a color plate showing the design above as Georgia's state flag. Rather than Georgia's coat of arms being placed on the blue band, the coat of arms is shown on a gold-outlined white shield, with the date "1799" shown below the arms. Additionally, without any statutory authorization, a red ribbon with "Georgia" was added below the shield on the blue background.
Exactly who was responsible for these departures from the 1902 statute--and when--is not known, but clearly by 1904, this was accepted as Georgia's state flag. And, in fact, several copies of this flag survive today attesting to its use. Interestingly, despite the addition of the shield, date, and red ribbon, the flag clearly demonstrates that that Georgia's coat of arms was not synonymous with the state seal.
A color postcard showing Georgia's exhibition hall at the Jamestown Exposition in 1907 incorporates the identical shield design, further evidence that this design had quickly become accepted as Georgia's coat of arms.
In 1914, the General Assembly changed the date on Georgia's state seal from 1799 (the year the seal was adopted) to 1776 (the year of independence). It is not known whether the date on the above flag subsequently was changed. Sometime in the 1920s, however, Georgia state flags began appearing with the state seal rather than the coat of arms on a white and gold shield. Once again, the change came without official authorization of the legislature, and there is no record of who directed the change or exactly when it took place
Georgia State Flag
In 1902, Georgia's General Assembly enacted legislation stipulating that Georgia's coat of arms be incorporated on the vertical blue band of the state flag. Copies of the state flag with only the coat of arms (i.e., the interior section of the state seal that shows the arch) survive. However, by the late 1910s or early 1920s, a new, unofficial version of Georgia's state flag--one incorporating the entire state seal--began appearing. There is no record of who ordered the change or when it took place.
The new flag may have resulted from a 1914 law changing the date on Georgia's state seal from 1799 (the date the seal was adopted) to 1776 (the year of independence). Because some flag makers had been including "1799" beneath the coat of arms, it became necessary to change the date on new flags. At that point, possibly the Secretary of State or a flag manufacturer may have decided that the entire state seal created a more uniform flag.
The first state publication to show Georgia's flag with a seal was the Georgia Official Register for 1927, which showed the above flag--but with a color seal. In some cases, the flag had a seal that was predominantly gold. In most cases, however, the seal is simply a blue line drawing on white background. In some cases, the seal's outer edge touches the blue background, while in others (as shown above) the seal is situated in a larger circle of white. Also, until the mid-1950s (when a new seal was drawn), various versions of the Georgia seal were used on state flags.
In early 1955, Atlanta attorney John Sammons Bell (who later served as a judge on the Georgia Court of Appeals) suggested a new state flag for Georgia that would incorporate the Confederate Battle Flag. At the 1956 session of the General Assembly, state senators Jefferson Lee Davis and Willis Harden introduced Senate Bill 98 to change the state flag. Signed into law on February 13, 1956, the bill became effective the following July 1.
A copy of the new flag displayed at the 1956 signing ceremony shows slight differences from the state flag commonly produced (and shown above). In the 1956 version, the stars are larger, and only the center point of the central star points straight up. Also, the first copies of the 1956 flag used a different version of the state seal. In the summer of 1954, a new redrawn state seal began to appear on state government documents. By the end of the decade, flag makers were using the new seal on Georgia's official state flags.
Georgia State Flag
The Georgia state flag adopted in 1956 has long been the subject of controversy. Calls to change it began in 1969, with opponents criticizing the symbolism expressed by the Confederate battle flag image that visually dominated the design. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, numerous bills to return to the pre-1956 flag were introduced in the General Assembly -- but none were successful. In 2000, Atlanta architect Cecil Alexander designed a new state flag consisting of the seal of the state in "Dahlonega gold" surrounded by 13 white stars above a gold ribbon containing small images of the three state flags that had flown over Georgia, as well as the first and current versions of the U.S. national flag. Above the five small flags was the phrase "Georgia's History." On Jan. 24, 2001, the Georgia House approved H.B. 16, adopting Alexander's flag design as the new Georgia state flag with an amendment to add "In God We Trust" beneath the ribbon of flags. H.B. 16 was transmitted to the Senate, where it passed without amendment on Jan. 30, 2001. On Jan. 31, Gov. Roy Barnes signed the bill into law.
On May 8, 2003, Governor Sonny Perdue signed H.B. 380 creating a new state flag for Georgia. The act became effective immediately, giving Georgia its third state flag in a period of 27 months. Support for the new flag came from critics of the 2001 flag and those who felt there should be a public referendum on the state flag. The legislation also provided for a statewide advisory referendum on March 2, 2004, at which time voters will choose between the 2001 and 2003 flags. However, results of the referendum are not binding, and any future flag change will require an act of the General Assembly
Georgia's new state flag is based on the first national flag of the Confederacy (the "Stars and Bars") and consists of a field of three horizontal bars of equal width, two red separated by a white bar in the center. In the upper left corner is a square blue canton the width of two bars. In the center of the canton is a circle of 13 white stars, symbolizing Georgia and the other 12 original states that formed the United States of America. Within the circle of stars is Georgia's coat of arms (the central design on the state seal) immediately above the words "In God We Trust" -- both in gold.
Bonnie Blue Flag
The Confederate government did not adopt this flag but the people did and the lone star flags were adopted in some form in five of the southern States that adopted new flags in 1861.
Southern Cross Flag
Used as a navy jack at sea from 1863 onward. This flag has become the generally recognized symbol of the South.
Second Confederate Flag
On May 1st,1863, a second design was adopted, placing the Battle Flag (also known as the "Southern Cross") as the canton on a white field. This flag was easily mistaken for a white flag of surrender especially when the air was calm and the flag hung limply. More on Confederate Flags
A comprehensive study of the role of the cavalry in Sherman's coordinated assault on Atlanta in 1864, involving three federal armies that swept in from the west through Alabama and Georgia
A vivid account of the campaign that helped decide the outcome of the Civil War. Evans provides a comprehensive study of the role of the cavalry in Sherman's coordinated assault on Atlanta in 1864, involving three federal armies that swept in from the west through Alabama and Georgia. Those armies left a horrible wake of damage in their path, and they suffered horribly as well. Evans writes of their work with a keen eye for detail, describing the confusion of the battlefield and the bloody aftermath of a cavalry engagement.
A History and Roster of the Fifteenth Georgia, takes the reader on an exciting, fact-filled chronicle through the Civil War as experienced by the men from Georgia. The narrative is filled with excerpts from numerous primary sources. Detailed end-notes complement and clarify the book's references. The roster is extracted directly from the National Archives(CSA)records. The roster was placed in an electronic data base from which statistics were compiled and charts created. Original battle maps highlight regimental and brigade locations at key battles. Rare photographs of soldiers, hand written journal entries,weapons, and their beloved unit flag provide the reader with graphic treasures of the past. Also, classic and relevant civil war engravings, present a vivid, eyewitness account of key events experienced by the unit. These encompassing perspectives of the "Fighting Fifteenth" and the "Rock Brigade," provide the serious researcher or history buff an insightful and entertaining survey of an important aspect of our American heritage.
Source: U.S. National Park Service
U.S. Library of Congress